D04 Classical guitar lesson 09

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Jean-François Delcamp
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D04 Classical guitar lesson 09

Postby Jean-François Delcamp » Wed Apr 27, 2016 8:28 am

Hello everyone,
Please start by downloading the latest version of volume D04.
If you are new to the course, please read this message to familiarize yourself with the conditions for participating in the lessons. You should also read the first message in lesson 1, where you will find advice on how to make the most of your study time and on the methods of practising that I recommend.



Today, we're going to work on a series of exercises.
- pages 119 Delcamp, Jean-François Gammes n°29 et 30

Youtube


Youtube

- pages 122 Delcamp, Jean-François Mordants et Trilles, numéros 36 et 37
viewtopic.php?f=118&t=30257

Youtube




Finally, we'll look at three pieces.

- page 27 Gaspar Sanz: Zarabanda
In this Zarabanda by Gaspar Sanz, the time signature changes constantly, as in the Canario and Guajira rhythms.
In the original tablature (reproduced at the top of page 27) changes in time signature are not indicated.
This Zarabanda in D ends with a half-cadence on the dominant (A).
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cadence_%2 ... lf_cadence

Youtube



- page 34 Robert de Visée: Minuet in A major, R. 4.09
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hemiola
In this Minuet by Robert de Visée, the length of the measure doubles at the end (bars 14 and 15). So we go from a 3/4 rhythm to a 3/2 rhythm. I've added dotted lines above the bars to indicate this change.
In my video I chose to play the end of this minuet with a rhythm of notes inégales (unequal notes). The use of notes inégales in playing is typical of the Baroque period. http://www.dolmetsch.com/musictheory20.htm#egal http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Notes_in%C3%A9gales

Youtube



- pages 58, 59, 60, 61 Anton Diabelli Prélude No.6 Opus 103
This prelude is a great exercise for practising repeated notes and an effective preparation for playing the tremolo. I recommend that you practise the six different fingering patterns that are suggested above the first bar. Be ambitious and persevere on the patterns which you find the most difficult, so that eventually you master them all equally well.

Youtube



I ask you first to work on all these exercises and tunes for a week and then to upload your recordings of:
- page 27 Gaspar Sanz: Zarabanda


Good luck!

I thank Tuk and Geoff (GeoffB), who have helped in the translation of my lessons into English.

Jean-François

---

Exam qualifying submissions:

Gaspar Sanz: Zarabanda

Rick Beauregard
Gaspar Sanz: Zarabanda

CarlWestman
Gaspar Sanz: Zarabanda
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CarlWestman
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Re: D04 Classical guitar lesson 09

Postby CarlWestman » Wed Apr 27, 2016 11:56 pm

Q1.
Could someone please help me understand why the suggested LH fingering for the opening F# trill in Zarabanda is 2131 instead of 203 or 2030?

The trill practices listed above have the trills played in such a way that the indicated note is trilled by playing it, followed by the next lower lettered note in quick succession, followed by the original note (and sometimes the next lower lettered note again).

In Zarabanda, this would imply F# | E | F#, which I think would likely be played with LH fingering 2 | 0 | 3, or maybe F# | E | F# | E , which I think would likely be played with LH fingering 2 | 0 | 3 | 0.

Playing it as 2131 seemed to imply that you would be playing F# | F | F# | F. Is that what is really desired in this trill? If so, why do none of the exercises trill a sharpened note with its natural?

If we look to ex. 39, which has 4-note trills in this key (D major, I think), it trills F# as G |F#|G|F#. So on this one, it has us go up a lettered note to start, then dropping down to the indicated note. Is that what is desired here?

I'd also note that this little piece ends rather abruptly. I realize it's a JFD revision, so perhaps the original did not end this way. Just an observation.

Q2.
And what is with the strumming at 0:30? How does that square with the sheet music - and how should it be played?

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Re: D04 Classical guitar lesson 09

Postby EricKatz » Thu Apr 28, 2016 8:02 am

A trill in baroque music always starts with the next higher note (=G). The trill in professor Delcamps exercise 39 m.3 has the same pattern: next upper note (2nd finger) - written note (1th finger) - next upper note (3rd finger) - written note (1th finger). Other fingerings can be 1020 (if an open string is involved) and 3141 (when the distance between written note and next upper note is 2 frets). So in the Sarabande you play:
upper note G (2nd finger) - written note F# (1th finger) - next upper note (3rd finger) - written note F# (1th finger).
A trill is indicated by a wavy line or the letters tr.

The mordents in professor Delcamps video show the exercises 36 and 37 and have another pattern: written note - next lower note - written note.
The lower mordent is indicated by a wavy line with a short vertical line through it.

This Sarabande ends with a half cadence: a dominant A after tonic D. In fact, this "theme" can be recognized in m.2, 4 and partly in m.8. Even m.6 ends with an A.
Your (21th century) feeling about it is right. The half cadence sounds incomplete or suspended, it is considered a weak cadence that calls for continuation. (Maybe that continuation came with the next piece of a serie, without applause in between. What we now call a suite.)

To answer your question about the strumming at 0:30, when professor Derlcamp comes to the second repeat of m.5-8, he brings in some variation by strumming m.5 and 6. In baroque music it was not uncommon to improvise, vary and embellish the written music. (often there wasn't even something written and the player improvised on a common known chord pattern, which he worked out when playing. A lot of written music tries to capture such an improvisation.) But as a student you just can stick to the score!

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Re: D04 Classical guitar lesson 09

Postby CarlWestman » Thu Apr 28, 2016 10:38 am

Thank you, Eric!

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Re: D04 Classical guitar lesson 09

Postby Rick Beauregard » Thu Apr 28, 2016 6:34 pm

Nice explanation Eric. Our D04 class of currently 2 thanks you for your contributions! Haris & Duang & you too Bea, Carl & I hope to see you back soon!
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Re: D04 Classical guitar lesson 09

Postby CarlWestman » Fri Apr 29, 2016 5:06 pm

Another question for sheet music experts:

On Zarabanda, there are a couple measures with notes that add up strangely (to me). One of these is measure 6, which begins with an A and C#. The A is a dotted half-note, so it gets three beats. The time signature is 3|4, so I think that means 3 beats per measure, the quarter note gets the beat.

But after two eighth notes (the C#, followed by B), A is struck again - and it appears to be the same A (not an A on a different string). So that would stop the initial 3-beat A note after just one beat, and restart it for two more.

So why is the first A of the measure a dotted half note instead of a quarter note? Or, as often is the case, have I missed something?

Thank you.

PS, a similar thing happens in measure 7 with a dotted quarter note on the A. The time signature there is 6|8, so there are 6 beats per measure, the 8th note gets the beat, but the dotted quarter note A is stopped after 2 beats and struck again for the third and final beat of the measure.

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Re: D04 Classical guitar lesson 09

Postby Marko Räsänen » Fri Apr 29, 2016 6:25 pm

CarlWestman wrote:So why is the first A of the measure a dotted half note instead of a quarter note?


The musical idea is that the A is a dotted half note, but the physical reality dictates that it cannot be sustained for as long. It is important that you understand the musical ideas conveyed in the sheet music, even though they cannot be technically followed to the dot. When you play that measure you should aim to play it so that the first A doesn't sound cut short, i.e. use as much legato as possible, and don't call too much attention for the 2nd A, and in the best case the listener doesn't notice what happened there.
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Re: D04 Classical guitar lesson 09

Postby Rick Beauregard » Fri Apr 29, 2016 8:01 pm

Interesting observation Carl. I happen to have the transcription of the suite by Narcisco Yepes, and looked at that to compare. He plays the first A in the bass voice on the open fifth string, but as a half note, then a quarter rest. The second A is a quarter note in the upper voice, followed by a quarter rest.
IMG_2557.jpg


The musical idea is different in Yepes' version, as the notes are cut off before the end of the measure by the rests. I'd be curious to know which is closer to the original lute score by Sanz. Yepes' suite is played with the 6th tuned to D, which I did on the Espanoleta in the last lesson.
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Re: D04 Classical guitar lesson 09

Postby EricKatz » Fri Apr 29, 2016 9:21 pm

Rick Beauregard wrote:I'd be curious to know which is closer to the original lute score by Sanz.


Sanz=baroque guitar!!

The original score is right before your eyes on p.27. It's tablature and relatively easy to read. The upper line is the 5th string, the lowest line represents the first string etc. The numbers indicate the frets. Above the line there are indications of the duration of the notes. Usually there's only one indication that rules untill you see another one. Does that mean that you must stop a note after its duration? Not always, scholars think that baroque players often let the note ring untill the next measure as long there is no new note written on the same line/string.

Now lets take a look at m.6. In the tablature m.6 is the second one from the right. It says literally: play the 5th string (a) as open string and let it ring for the rest of the measure (=6x 1/8 note=3x1/4 note=dotted 1/2 note).
Also on the first beat of m.6 you play the 2nd string/2nd fret (c#, 1/8 note) followed by 2nd string/open (b, 1/8 note). After that you play 3rd string/second fret.
So you might think Yepes is right when he writes a melody line c#-b-a (with some embellishment) and an A in the bass. But...
The baroque guitar is stringed in a peculiar way. First of all, the 5th and 4th string are always double: sometimes unison, sometimes tuned in octaves (in this aspect Spanish, French and Italian ways of stringing are different). 3rd and 2nd string are double, but tuned unison. The 1th string is usually single.

There are good reasons to think Sanz had the 5th and 4th string tuned unison (Hopkinson Smith does, among others). I think professor Delcamp shares that view. But this means that the A on the 5th string isn't a bass note, but sounds exactly the same as the melody note a (3rd string, 2nd fret). This gives the unique baroque sound, which in this case can't be reproduced on a modern guitar (hence the two notes a on the same line in the staff).

Smith's version of the Zarabanda can be heard at You tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xzOKhS6vrJM The Sarabanda starts at 11:08.

Conclusion: Carl is right. This can't be played as notated. But considering this background information, I would advice to play the A twice (and think of the dotted A as a 1/4 note), as Marko already pointed out.

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Re: D04 Classical guitar lesson 09

Postby Marko Räsänen » Fri Apr 29, 2016 9:37 pm

Very impressive analysis, Eric! I looked at the tab as well, but never considered the peculiarities of baroque guitar stringing :shock:
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Re: D04 Classical guitar lesson 09

Postby Rick Beauregard » Sat Apr 30, 2016 3:06 pm

Excellent analysis Erik. :merci:
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Re: D04 Classical guitar lesson 09

Postby John Montes » Sat Apr 30, 2016 9:17 pm

Marko Räsänen wrote:Very impressive analysis, Eric! I looked at the tab as well, but never considered the peculiarities of baroque guitar stringing :shock:

I didnt even know about the stringing details :-)
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Re: D04 Classical guitar lesson 09

Postby CarlWestman » Sun May 01, 2016 3:36 pm

Thank you all! It's nice that for once, my confusion was not due to the shortcomings of my sheet-music reading ability. :)

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Re: D04 Classical guitar lesson 09

Postby Rick Beauregard » Tue May 17, 2016 3:55 am

Here is my Zarabanda, incomplete. I managed only to play one of each of the two repeats halfway correctly, but tried to soldier on.


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Re: D04 Classical guitar lesson 09

Postby CarlWestman » Tue May 17, 2016 1:43 pm

Nice tone, Rick. It is indeed a tricky one - precisely where boxed. I hope to record mine in the next day or two.


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