It is unlikely you will get in the designed-in rasp ('buzzing') on anything but a top end luthier guitar. On a cheap guitar it will just be fret buzz. It is like it almost fret buzzes but not quite and takes a precision build that I doubt you would get at the bottom of the market.
That said, you don't need it to study and can always save up if you think your skills become worthy.
As far as protectors, they are called golpeadors (a golpe is a tap) and are essential f you don't want to slowly tap yourself through the top). I got my luthier to make me some startic cling ones for my classical just in case, but I don't golpe that!!!
As far as tension goes, lower tension strings make for easier fast picado (and wear down you nails less), but higher tension strings make rasguedos more crisp (until you have learned how to do the movements more precisely on lower tension strings). Ramon Amira (a regular on the board) would advise low tension strings, but he is pro level!
You will also be advised to use superglue on your nails or you will be having nail break downtime.
The suggested Yamaha would do for a beginner.