Okay, that was a lot to digest so I'm going to let that all sink in.
So as a diversion, I want to discuss one little note some of you may have gone, "hey, what about that note?"
It's the E# in Measure 7.
It' happens again in the same place later in the piece.
E# is found two other places - in the viio7/V and the V7/V.
In that case, it's the Leading Tone to F#, and part of either the viio7 (E#o7) or V7 (C#7) chords in F#.
E#-G#-B-D, or C#-E-G#-B
But if you try to make a chord out of this, you get E#-G-B.
That might look like a chord at first, because it's every other letter, but E#-G is an interval called a "diminished 3rd", and chords aren't built with those.
Oh, E#, that's F, so this is G-B-[D]-F - it's a G7 chord.
Composers and Editors spell notes according to their FUNCTION. Since we're dealing with Functional Harmony, composers and editors want the right note that tells you what the function of the chord is! NOtice the E#o7 later in the piece. You might have said "geez, E#o7, why didn't they just make it Fo7 (or Bo7 or Do7 which all sound the same). It's because E# is the Leading Tone to F#, and the note in the Key of Bm is F#. Fo7 leads to Gb. Do7 leads to Eb. Bo7 leads to C.
Now there are some rare and specific exceptions where a chord is spelled one way and acts another, but this ain't one of them.
But here, in Measure 7 we have the E#-G-B structure. What is it?
Not everything is a chord tone!
We said it last time, but it's worth repeating.
The first melody note is E, and in the next measure, it's F#. The E is a chord tone in m.7 and the F# is in m.8. One interpretation of this note is it's simply a Passing Tone, passing between the E and F#. Wait you say, how's that happen - E and F# are both in the scale already.
That's OK, you can have Chromatic Passing Tones. That's what this is.
Non-Chord Tones (NCTs) may be Diatonic (belong to the scale) or Chromatic (outside of the Key at hand).
Because this piece contains a Neapolitan Sixth chord, I do want to discuss another chord we often encounter in Keys, that uses chromatic notes, but is so often used, it can be considered "part of the key" in the same way the Neapolitan is (and Secondary chords are not).
Some "chords" in CPP music are not really "chords" at all, but merely most of a chord, with a NCT that could be counted as a chord. Kind of like all of those notes I said could be interpreted two ways in the von Call piece.
In fact, all of our chords originally arose from COUNTERPOINT. Counterpoint is LINEAR. It involves combining music HORIZONTALLY - melodies combined to make harmony. This is how harmony began.
One of the major shifts in musical thought was to interpret sounds that resulted from combining melodic notes as VERTICAL entities - chords! Interestingly, this happens right around the same time the CPP begins!
But, not every note is part of a chord as we've discovered. Sometimes, in this more vertically-oriented music of "chords" we still have melodic tones that don't fit the chord - a NCT.
That's what this E# could be.
But as I said, all of chords actually started as horizontal elements - melodies.
What has happened, throughout the evolutionary process of musical history, is that many elements that originally were MELODIC, later become HARMONIC.
For example, a long time ago, 7ths were NCTs. They were Passing Tones, Neighbor Tones, Pedal Tones, or other types of NCTs we've not yet discussed.
But as time went on, they became accepted as part of the chord proper.
Whether a note is a Chord Tone or not largely depends on the context. Something that's a Passing Tone in one context - if it sounds for a really long time within a chord - might just as well be considered a chord tone. Also, it depends on the time period as well.
G - A - G
E - E - E
C - C -C
If we have a C chord, followed by another C chord in the next measure, and let's say the G melody note is 7 8th notes long, and the A note only appears on the last 8th note of the measure, followed by the G melody note in the 2nd measure, do we call the chord under the A an Am? Is it long enough to be heard as a "stand alone" chord, or is this all just a C Harmony with a little melodic Neighbor on top? Most analysts would say it's only a Chord tone.
But what if the A were 2 beats - or a whole measure? At what point does it become a chord?
So it's largely contextual.
This E# is pretty short, so I'm going to call it a Chromatic Passing Tone (the arpeggiated context lends some credence to this)
But it does afford us a chance to learn another new chord, that's a "Sixth" chord like the Neapolitan.
There is a family of chords called the "Augmented Sixth" chords.
In their usual context (there can be others) they appear on b6 of the scale (that would be G in Bm or B Major, or F in A Major or Am, etc.).
They also contain the interval of an Augmented 6th above, which happens to be #4 of the Key.
In Bm, this would be G and E#. See those notes
b6 is a tendency tone. It wants to move down to scale degree 5. #4 is like the Leading Tone to 5 (E# in this key as already discussed).
The two together - man - lots of "push" to the Dominant scale degree.
So like the Neapolitan, the Augmented Sixth chord family is Pre-Dominant and wants to move to the Dominant.
So first, if we're thinking this might be an Augmented Sixth (+6 hereafter), it should go to V (or a Secondary of V, or the Tonic, which can go anywhere, ultimately moving to V).
Also the b6 (G here) should resolve down (does it?) and the #4 (E#) should resolve up or to the 7th of the V7. Does it?
They do, so this just might be a +6 chord.
You will find the +6 chords in 4 common flavors:
The +6 interval, which contains b6 and #4.
Then three "nationalities" with the interval "filled" in with other notes:
1 (doubled in 4 parts)
Now, here's the funky part. The names were made up by some theorist a long time ago. He did it based on sound and prejudices about the countries.
But one way to remember them is "geographically" - if you look at the middle note, it "heads north" as you go from Italy to France to Germany (well, France reaches further south than Germany).
If we put this in letter form, on a C note (which would be b6 in the key of E/Em), we'd have:
See how the E middle note moves from scale degree 1 in E to 2 to b 3 (E - F# - G)?
This is Bm.
We have G, B, and E#. What scale degrees are they?
b6 - 1 - and #4
So this is an Italian +6 if we want to call this a "chord proper".
It does resolve "like it should" so there's a very good case for calling it that.
I'd say the only real mark against it is that Sor has pretty consistently given us 1 harmony per measure.
That's why I go with the Chromatic Passing Tone analysis (on the other hand, that makes it the only NCT in the piece the two times it appears, which could be evidence the other way).
I don't think it's all that important which you choose - but hey, you learned two things - Chromatic Passing Tone and +6 chords!
cPT is easier though too
OK, I'm going to do one more post for this one, about the Form of the piece, so we can learn everything we need to know for the next analysis we'll undertake.